# Are electromagnetic waves sinusoidal?

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Whenever I see a representation of an EM wave, whether it be the E or B vector, it’s always in form of a sinusoid. … In materials (e.g. glass or water) the shape of the wave in general changes as it propagates. Each sine-wave component, however, keeps its sinusoidal shape.

## What does sinusoidal wave mean?

A sine wave or sinusoidal wave is the most natural representation of how many things in nature change state. A sine wave shows how the amplitude of a variable changes with time. … The number of times the sine wave goes through a complete cycle in the space of 1 second is called the frequency.

## Are electromagnetic waves transverse?

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. Their vibrations or oscillations are changes in electrical and magnetic fields at right angles to the direction of wave travel. All electromagnetic waves: transfer energy as radiation from the source of the waves to an absorber.

## What is the wavelength of the sinusoidal electromagnetic wave?

It means that the electric field has a vertical orientation. This means that the polarization of the electromagnetic waves (radio waves) is vertical. 4/ A plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in air has a wavelength of 3.84 cm and an E-field amplitude of 1.35 V/m.

## Are electromagnetic waves made of photons?

All electromagnetic waves, from radio waves with wavelengths L~km to gamma-rays with L~10e-12 m (i.e. 1 picometre, or 1 pm), are made up of bundles of energy called `photons’. … So EM radiation can show `classical’ wave-like properties in some situations, and `classical’ particle-like properties in others.

## Why is AC a sine wave?

The sine wave is a consequence of the way the AC is produced. … If current is positive they move in one if current is negative they move in the other direction, but not representing any sinusoidal motion. The sinusoidal current comes from the amount of electrons – this just as a sidenote.

## How AC sinusoidal EMF is generated?

Sinusoidal Waveforms. … An AC generator uses the principal of Faraday’s electromagnetic induction to convert a mechanical energy such as rotation, into electrical energy, a Sinusoidal Waveform. A simple generator consists of a pair of permanent magnets producing a fixed magnetic field between a north and a south pole.

## Do transverse waves need a medium?

Transverse waves require a relatively rigid medium in order to transmit their energy.

## Are water waves transverse or longitudinal?

Light and other types of electromagnetic radiation are transverse waves. All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum , such as through space. Water waves and S waves are also transverse waves.

## How fast do transverse waves travel?

Transverse waves oscillate in the z-y plane but travel along the x axis. A transverse wave has a speed of propagation given by the equation v = fλ. The direction of energy transfer is perpendicular to the motion of the wave.

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## What type of waves are electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic Waves have different wavelengths.

Radio waves, television waves, and microwaves are all types of electromagnetic waves. They only differ from each other in wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.

## How do electromagnetic waves travel?

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

A changing magnetic field will induce a changing electric field and vice-versa—the two are linked. These changing fields form electromagnetic waves. … This means that electromagnetic waves can travel not only through air and solid materials, but also through the vacuum of space.

## What is the speed of electromagnetic waves in air?

All these waves propagate in vacuum with the same speed c, the speed of light. The speed of light in air (at standard temperature and pressure) is very close to the speed of light in vacuum (the refractive index of air, n, is 1.0002926, meaning that the speed of electromagnetic waves in air is c/n ≈ c).

## Why does a photon have no mass?

Light is composed of photons, so we could ask if the photon has mass. The answer is then definitely “no”: the photon is a massless particle. According to theory it has energy and momentum but no mass, and this is confirmed by experiment to within strict limits.

## What are the 7 electromagnetic waves in order?

This range is known as the electromagnetic spectrum. The EM spectrum is generally divided into seven regions, in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency. The common designations are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), X-rays and gamma rays.

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## Is light a wave or a particle?

Light Is Also a Particle!

Einstein believed light is a particle (photon) and the flow of photons is a wave. The main point of Einstein’s light quantum theory is that light’s energy is related to its oscillation frequency. 