# Which electromagnetic waves can penetrate the atmosphere?

Contents

Figure 3.4: The Earth’s atmosphere is transparent only to certain wavelengths of light that uses the analogy to open, closed, or partially closed windows. All visible light penetrates the atmosphere, most radio light penetrates the atmosphere, and some IR light passes through the atmosphere.

## What electromagnetic waves can pass through the atmosphere?

Earth’s atmosphere, however, acts an opaque barrier to much of the electromagnetic spectrum. The atmosphere absorbs most of the wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet, most of the wavelengths between infrared and microwaves, and most of the longest radio waves.

## What waves can penetrate the atmosphere?

Of all of the types of elcetro magnetic radiation, radio waves have the lowest frequency and the longest wavelength. The atmosphere of the Earth is transparent to radio waves with wavelengths of a few millimetres to about twenty metres.

## Can gamma rays penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere?

Gamma rays travel to us across vast distances of the universe, only to be absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere. Different wavelengths of light penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere to different depths.

## Which forms of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed in the upper atmosphere?

Ozone gas in the upper atmosphere absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths shorter than about 0.25 µm. This is actually a positive thing for us and most other living things, because of the harmful nature of ultraviolet radiation below these wavelengths.

## What type of electromagnetic waves are most dangerous to humans?

Most forms of EMR can be dangerous; however the most dangerous form of Electromagnetic radiation has the most energy. This radiation is called gamma rays.

## What frequencies does water absorb?

In the near-infrared range liquid water has absorption bands around 1950 nm (5128 cm−1), 1450 nm (6896 cm−1), 1200 nm (8333 cm−1) and 970 nm, (10300 cm−1).

## What radio frequency travels the farthest?

Radio waves in the HF (3–30 MHz) range can travel around the Earth by bouncing off the ionosphere and allow one to communicate directly over 1000s of miles.

## What are the 2 windows in the Earth atmosphere?

Atmospheric Windows. The Earth’s atmosphere absorbs electromagnetic radiation at most infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths, so there are only two atmospheric windows, in the radio and visible wavebands, suitable for ground-based astronomy.

Gamma rays

## What if we could see gamma rays?

Gamma-rays have the highest energy and the shortest wavelength. Most often, they are associated with the hottest and most energetic objects in the universe: Massive celestial events like supernovae explosions or a feasting black hole. So if you could see gamma-rays, the night sky would be wholly unrecognizable.

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## Why can’t gamma rays penetrate the atmosphere?

Atmospheric penetration depends mostly upon the gamma ray frequency. Some frequencies do penetrate the atmosphere. The reason that most gamma rays do not penetrate the atmosphere is that they interact with atoms and molecules in the atmosphere.

## Do gamma rays have high energy?

Gamma-ray photons have the highest energy in the EMR spectrum and their waves have the shortest wavelength. Scientists measure the energy of photons in electron volts (eV). X-ray photons have energies in the range 100 eV to 100,000 eV (or 100 keV). Gamma-ray photons generally have energies greater than 100 keV.

## How do we interact with the atmosphere?

In more subtle ways, atmosphere-biosphere interactions influence the health of the air we breathe (see figure): rough surfaces of vegetation remove aerosols, ozone, and other reactive gases from the air through dry deposition; plants emit a huge variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are precursors to …

## What 4 mechanisms affect radiation in the atmosphere?

a reduction in the power of the solar radiation due to absorption, scattering and reflection in the atmosphere; a change in the spectral content of the solar radiation due to greater absorption or scattering of some wavelengths; the introduction of a diffuse or indirect component into the solar radiation; and.

## Which type of light is absorbed the least by the atmosphere?

Below that, in the stratosphere, ozone absorbs nearly all the ultraviolet radiation (between 200 and 310 nm). In the lowest region of the atmosphere, the troposphere, colored molecules absorb some visible light and other molecules (H2O, CO2) absorb infrared or heat energy.

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