The difference between true north and magnetic north is called magnetic declination or magnetic variation. Some sources also erroneously refer to it as magnetic deviation. It’s essential to take this phenomenon into account when navigating with a compass.

## What is magnetic variation and deviation?

Thus all bearings on a chart are related to TRUE NORTH. Compasses point to MAGNETIC NORTH, which varies from True North by an error called VARIATION. Compasses also are subject to their own errors; this is called DEVIATION. … Because the Magnetic North Pole moves, the variation changes from year to year.7 мая 2010 г.

## Do you add or subtract magnetic variation?

Magnetic versus True

Use this mnemonic to remember that with variation west, the magnetic direction is going to be “best” or greater than true. Variation is added to true to arrive at magnetic, or subtracted from magnetic to get true. With variation east, magnetic will be “least” or less than true.

## What is my magnetic deviation?

Magnetic deviation is the error induced in a compass by local magnetic fields, which must be allowed for, along with magnetic declination, if accurate bearings are to be calculated. (More loosely, “magnetic deviation” is used by some to mean the same as “magnetic declination”.

## What causes magnetic variation?

Magnetic declination varies both from place to place, and with the passage of time. … Complex fluid motion in the outer core of the Earth (the molten metallic region that lies from 2800 to 5000 km below the Earth’s surface) causes the magnetic field to change slowly with time. This change is known as secular variation.

## What is my magnetic variation?

Magnetic declination, sometimes called magnetic variation, is the angle between magnetic north and true north. Declination is positive east of true north and negative when west.

## How do you determine magnetic variation?

Variation is the difference in degrees and minutes between True North on the chart you are looking at and Magnetic North at that place at a given time. You can then apply the rate of variation every year to find variation at that location in any given year.

## How much does magnetic declination change per year?

The magnetic declination in a given area may (most likely will) change slowly over time, possibly as little as 2–2.5 degrees every hundred years or so, depending upon how far from the magnetic poles it is. For a location closer to the pole like Ivujivik, the declination may change by 1 degree every three years.

## How do you convert magnetic north to true north?

The difference is the 17° angle from True North to Magnetic North less the 1° 33′ angle from True North to Grid North. Thus to convert from a magnetic bearing to a Grid North reference you would add 15° 27′.

## How do you correct deviation?

Work out the Standard Deviation.

- Work out the mean. …
- Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result. …
- Then work out the mean of those squared differences. …
- Take the square root of that: …
- Work out the mean. …
- Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result.

## Why is it important to correct magnetic declination?

Magnetic declination is an important concept for accurate navigation. A compass will always point along the lines of magnetic force (which converge on what are called the magnetic poles). … As the earth’s magnetic field varies over time, the positions of the north and south magnetic poles gradually change.

## What happens when you put a compass near a magnet?

The needle of a compass is itself a magnet, and thus the north pole of the magnet always points north, except when it is near a strong magnet. … When you take the compass away from the bar magnet, it again points north. So, we can conclude that the north end of a compass is attracted to the south end of a magnet.

## Where on earth is there no magnetic declination?

Earth is like a giant magnet with a North and South Pole. However, the magnetic North and South Pole are not aligned with the Geographic North and South Pole.

## Do pilots use magnetic or true north?

If You’re A Pilot, This Is What You Need To Know About Your Magnetic Compass. Since the beginning of flight, pilots have been using the magnetic compass for navigation. It doesn’t matter if you’re flying a Piper Cub or a Boeing 747, you’ll find a magnetic compass in the cockpits of almost any aircraft.

## How many degrees off is magnetic north?

Depending on where you are, the angle between true north and magnetic north is different. In the U.S., the angle of declination varies from about 20 degrees west in Maine to about 21 degrees east in Washington. (See Figure 6.7).